Oil & Gas Glossary
2D seismic data
1. n. [Geophysics]
A vertical section of seismic data consisting of numerous adjacent traces acquired sequentially.
2. n. [Geophysics]
A group of 2D seismic lines acquired individually, as opposed to the multiple closely spaced lines acquired together that constitute 3D seismic data.
3D seismic data
A set of numerous closely spaced seismic lines that provide a high spatially sampled measure of subsurface reflectivity. Typical receiver line spacing can range from 300 m [1,000ft] to over 600m [2,000ft], and typical distances between shotpoints and receiver groups is 25m [82ft] (offshore and internationally) and 110ft or 220ft [34 to 67m] (onshore USA, using values that are even factors of the 5,280 feet in a mile). Bin sizes are commonly 25m, 110ft or 220ft. The resultant data set can be "cut" in any direction but still display a well-sampled seismic section. The original seismic lines are called in-lines. Lines displayed perpendicular to in-lines are called crosslines. In a properly migrated 3D seismic data set, events are placed in their proper vertical and horizontal positions, providing more accurate subsurface maps than can be constructed on the basis of more widely spaced 2D seismic lines, between which significant interpolation might be necessary. In particular, 3D seismic data provide detailed information about fault distribution and subsurface structures. Computer-based interpretation and display of 3D seismic data allow for more thorough analysis than 2D seismic data.
The measurement of the permeability, or ability to flow or transmit fluids through a rock, conducted when a single fluid, or phase, is present in the rock. The symbol most commonly used for permeability is k, which is measured in units of darcies or millidarcies.
An arch-shaped fold in rock in which rock layers are upwardly convex. The oldest rock layers form the core of the fold, and outward from the core progressively younger rocks occur. Anticlines form many excellent hydrocarbon traps, particularly in folds with reservoir-quality rocks in their core and impermeable seals in the outer layers of the fold. A syncline is the opposite type of fold, having downwardly convex layers with young rocks in the core.
A specific gravity scale developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for measuring the relative density of various petroleum liquids, expressed in degrees. API gravity is gradated in degrees on a hydrometer instrument and was designed so that most values would fall between 10° and 70° API gravity. The arbitrary formula used to obtain this effect is: API gravity = (141.5/SG at 60°F) - 131.5, where SG is the specific gravity of the fluid
Average reservoir pressure
The pressure that would be obtained if all fluid motion ceases in a given volume of reservoir. It also is the pressure to which a well will ultimately rise if shut in for an infinite period.
Barrels of liquid per day
A volume of fluid that refers to the daily total production of oil and water from a well. The volume of a barrel is equivalent to 42 US gallons, abbreviated BLPD.
Barrels of oil per day
A common unit of measurement for the daily volume of crude oil produced by a well or from a field. The volume of a barrel is equivalent to 42 US gallons, abbreviated BOPD.
Refers to the continuous phase in oil-base drilling fluids. Oil-base drilling fluids are water-in-oil emulsions in which water is the dispersed phase and oil is the dispersion, or continuous, phase. Oil-to-water ratios (OWR) in oil-base drilling fluids vary from 65/35 to 95/5.
The rock layer below which economic hydrocarbon reservoirs are not expected to be found, sometimes called economic basement. Basement is usually older, deformed igneous or metamorphic rocks, which seldom develops the porosity and permeability necessary to serve as a hydrocarbon reservoir, and below which sedimentary rocks are not common. Basement rocks typically have different density, acoustic velocity, and magnetic properties from overlying rocks.
Abbreviation for barrels of oil per day, a common unit of measurement for volume of crude oil. The volume of a barrel is equivalent to 42 US gallons.
1. n. [Geology]
A relatively impermeable rock, commonly shale, anhydrite or salt, that forms a barrier or seal above and around reservoir rock so that fluids cannot migrate beyond the reservoir. It is often found atop a salt dome. The permeability of a cap rock capable of retaining fluids through geologic time is ~ 10-6-10-8 darcies.
An exposed gun system used primarily in wireline operations. This gun system has shaped charges that are housed in individual pressure-tight capsules mounted on a metal strip, which is lowered into the well. Each pressure-tight capsule, along with the entire string, is thus exposed to well fluids.
Large-diameter pipe lowered into an openhole and cemented in place. The well designer must design casing to withstand a variety of forces, such as collapse, burst, and tensile failure, as well as chemically aggressive brines. Most casing joints are fabricated with male threads on each end, and short-length casing couplings with female threads are used to join the individual joints of casing together, or joints of casing may be fabricated with male threads on one end and female threads on the other. Casing is run to protect fresh water formations, isolate a zone of lost returns or isolate formations with significantly different pressure gradients. The operation during which the casing is put into the wellbore is commonly called "running pipe." Casing is usually manufactured from plain carbon steel that is heat-treated to varying strengths, but may be specially fabricated of stainless steel, aluminum, titanium, fiberglass and other materials.
An assembled length of steel pipe configured to suit a specific wellbore. The sections of pipe are connected and lowered into a wellbore, then cemented in place. The pipe joints are typically approximately 40 ft [12 m] in length, male threaded on each end and connected with short lengths of double-female threaded pipe called couplings. Long casing strings may require higher strength materials on the upper portion of the string to withstand the string load. Lower portions of the string may be assembled with casing of a greater wall thickness to withstand the extreme pressures likely at depth. Casing is run to protect or isolate formations adjacent to the wellbore. The following are the most common reasons for running casing in a well: 1) protect fresh-water aquifers (surface casing) 2) provide strength for installation of wellhead equipment, including BOPs 3) provide pressure integrity so that wellhead equipment, including BOPs, may be closed 4) seal off leaky or fractured formations into which drilling fluids are lost 5) seal off low-strength formations so that higher strength (and generally higher pressure) formations may be penetrated safely 6) seal off high-pressure zones so that lower pressure formations may be drilled with lower drilling fluid densities 7) seal off troublesome formations, such as flowing salt 8) comply with regulatory requirements (usually related to one of the factors listed above).
The set of valves, spools and fittings connected to the top of a well to direct and control the flow of formation fluids from the well.
Sediment consisting of broken fragments derived from preexisting rocks and transported elsewhere and redeposited before forming another rock. Examples of common clastic sedimentary rocks include siliciclastic rocks such as conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone and shale. Carbonate rocks can also be broken and reworked to form clastic sedimentary rocks.
The removal of wellbore-fill material, such as sand, scale or organic materials, and other debris from the wellbore. Many reservoirs produce some sand or fines that may not be carried to surface in the produced fluid. Accumulations of fill material may eventually increase in concentration within the lower wellbore, possibly restricting production. Cleanouts using coiled tubing, snubbing or hydraulic workover techniques are performed routinely.
A rate, or production volume, sufficient to satisfy project economics.
A general term for unrefined petroleum or liquid petroleum.
A decline curve is a plot of oil or gas production rate with time made for a single well or an entire field. Production rate will decline with time as the reservoir pressure decreases.
A unit of measurement established by the American Petroleum Institute (API) that indicates the density of a liquid. Fresh water has an API density of 10.
The intentional deviation of a wellbore from the path it would naturally take. This is accomplished through the use of whipstocks, bottomhole assembly (BHA) configurations, instruments to measure the path of the wellbore in three-dimensional space, data links to communicate measurements taken downhole to the surface, mud motors and special BHA components and drill bits, including rotary steerable systems, and drill bits. The directional driller also exploits drilling parameters such as weight on bit and rotary speed to deflect the bit away from the axis of the existing wellbore. In some cases, such as drilling steeply dipping formations or unpredictable deviation in conventional drilling operations, directional-drilling techniques may be employed to ensure that the hole is drilled vertically. While many techniques can accomplish this, the general concept is simple: point the bit in the direction that one wants to drill. The most common way is through the use of a bend near the bit in a downhole steerable mud motor. The bend points the bit in a direction different from the axis of the wellbore when the entire drillstring is not rotating. By pumping mud through the mud motor, the bit turns while the drillstring does not rotate, allowing the bit to drill in the direction it points. When a particular wellbore direction is achieved, that direction may be maintained by rotating the entire drillstring (including the bent section) so that the bit does not drill in a single direction off the wellbore axis, but instead sweeps around and its net direction coincides with the existing wellbore. Rotary steerable tools allow steering while rotating, usually with higher rates of penetration and ultimately smoother boreholes. Directional drilling is common in shale reservoirs because it allows drillers to place the borehole in contact with the most productive reservoir rock.
The machine used to drill a wellbore. In onshore operations, the rig includes virtually everything except living quarters. Major components of the rig include the mud tanks, the mud pumps, the derrick or mast, the drawworks, the rotary table or topdrive, the drillstring, the power generation equipment and auxiliary equipment. Offshore, the rig includes the same components as onshore, but not those of the vessel or drilling platform itself. The rig is sometimes referred to as the drilling package, particularly offshore.
The combination of the drillpipe, the bottomhole assembly and any other tools used to make the drill bit turn at the bottom of the wellbore.
A contractual agreement with an owner who holds a working interest in an oil and gas lease to assign all or part of that interest to another party in exchange for fulfilling contractually specified conditions. The farmout agreement often stipulates that the other party must drill a well to a certain depth, at a specified location, within a certain time frame; furthermore, the well typically must be completed as a commercial producer to earn an assignment. The assignor of the interest usually reserves a specified overriding royalty interest, with the option to convert the overriding royalty interest to a specified working interest upon payout of drilling and production expenses, otherwise known as a back-in after payout (BIAPO).
A device installed in a pump manifold or treating line to measure the fluid flow rate. Flowmeters can be used to measure the flow rates of liquid or gas and are available in various configurations and with differing operating principles.
A well in which the formation pressure is sufficient to produce oil at a commercial rate without requiring a pump. Most reservoirs are initially at pressures high enough to allow a well to flow naturally.
The pressure of fluids within the pores of a reservoir, usually hydrostatic pressure, or the pressure exerted by a column of water from the formation's depth to sea level. When impermeable rocks such as shales form as sediments are compacted, their pore fluids cannot always escape and must then support the total overlying rock column, leading to anomalously high formation pressures. Because reservoir pressure changes as fluids are produced from a reservoir, the pressure should be described as measured at a specific time, such as initial reservoir pressure.
An abbreviation for fracturing fluid, a fluid injected into a well as part of a stimulation operation. Fracturing fluids for shale reservoirs usually contain water, proppant, and a small amount of nonaqueous fluids designed to reduce friction pressure while pumping the fluid into the wellbore. These fluids typically include gels, friction reducers, crosslinkers, breakers and surfactants similar to household cosmetics and cleaning products; these additives are selected for their capability to improve the results of the stimulation operation and the productivity of the well.
Another term for hydraulic fracturing, a stimulation treatment routinely performed on oil and gas wells in low-permeability reservoirs. Specially engineered fluids are pumped at high pressure and rate into the reservoir interval to be treated, causing a vertical fracture to open. The wings of the fracture extend away from the wellbore in opposing directions according to the natural stresses within the formation. Proppant, such as grains of sand of a particular size, is mixed with the treatment fluid to keep the fracture open when the treatment is complete. Hydraulic fracturing creates high-conductivity communication with a large area of formation and bypasses any damage that may exist in the near-wellbore area.
A term applied to hard rocks, or igneous and metamorphic rocks that are distinguished from sedimentary rocks because they are typically more difficult to disaggregate. Well cemented sedimentary rocks are sometimes described as being hard, but are usually called soft rock. The term can be used to differentiate between rocks of interest to the petroleum industry (soft rocks) and rocks of interest to the mining industry (hard rocks).
Crude oil with high viscosity (typically above 10 cp), and high specific gravity. The API classifies heavy oil as crudes with a gravity below 22.3° API. In addition to high viscosity and high specific gravity, heavy oils typically have low hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, high asphaltene, sulfur, nitrogen, and heavy-metal content, as well as higher acid numbers.
Pertaining to a rock that is incapable of transmitting fluids because of low permeability. Shale has a high porosity, but its pores are small and disconnected, so it is relatively impermeable. Impermeable rocks are desirable sealing rocks or cap rocks for reservoirs because hydrocarbons cannot pass through them readily.
Initial Production (IP)
The initial production of a well is the first 24 hours of production and is usually the highest.
Light crude oil
Crude oil that has a high API gravity, usually more than 40o.
Minerals Management Service
A branch of the US Lands and Mineral Management Department that supervises national resources. MMS has oversight of oil and gas leasing, royalty collection and other operations in US-owned areas. It closely monitors operations in Federal waters, oversees leasing of acreage, issues drilling permits and monitors operators for permit violations.
Net oil production
The volume of oil produced less oil injected. In hydraulic pumping, the oil injected is known as power oil.
Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales) can be produced.
A temporary drilling site, usually constructed of local materials such as gravel, shell or even wood. For some long-drilling-duration, deep wells, such as the ultradeep wells of western Oklahoma, or some regulatory jurisdictions such as The Netherlands, pads may be paved with asphalt or concrete. After the drilling operation is over, most of the pad is usually removed or plowed back into the ground.
To create holes in the casing or liner to achieve efficient communication between the reservoir and the wellbore. The characteristics and placement of the communication paths (perforations) can have significant influence on the productivity of the well. Therefore, a robust design and execution process should be followed to ensure efficient creation of the appropriate number, size and orientation of perforations. A perforating gun assembly with the appropriate configuration of shaped explosive charges and the means to verify or correlate the correct perforating depth can be deployed on wireline, tubing or coiled tubing.
The ability, or measurement of a rock's ability, to transmit fluids, typically measured in darcies or millidarcies. The term was basically defined by Henry Darcy, who showed that the common mathematics of heat transfer could be modified to adequately describe fluid flow in porous media. Formations that transmit fluids readily, such as sandstones, are described as permeable and tend to have many large, well-connected pores. Impermeable formations, such as shales and siltstones, tend to be finer grained or of a mixed grain size, with smaller, fewer, or less interconnected pores. Absolute permeability is the measurement of the permeability conducted when a single fluid, or phase, is present in the rock. Effective permeability is the ability to preferentially flow or transmit a particular fluid through a rock when other immiscible fluids are present in the reservoir (for example, effective permeability of gas in a gas-water reservoir). The relative saturations of the fluids as well as the nature of the reservoir affect the effective permeability. Relative permeability is the ratio of effective permeability of a particular fluid at a particular saturation to absolute permeability of that fluid at total saturation. If a single fluid is present in a rock, its relative permeability is 1.0. Calculation of relative permeability allows for comparison of the different abilities of fluids to flow in the presence of each other, since the presence of more than one fluid generally inhibits flow.
Geologic components and processes necessary to generate and store hydrocarbons, including a mature source rock, migration pathway, reservoir rock, trap and seal. Appropriate relative timing of formation of these elements and the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved. The components and critical timing relationships of a petroleum system can be displayed in a chart that shows geologic time along the horizontal axis and the petroleum system elements along the vertical axis. Exploration plays and prospects are typically developed in basins or regions in which a complete petroleum system has some likelihood of existing.
The percentage of pore volume or void space, or that volume within rock that can contain fluids. Porosity can be a relic of deposition (primary porosity, such as space between grains that were not compacted together completely) or can develop through alteration of the rock (secondary porosity, such as when feldspar grains or fossils are preferentially dissolved from sandstones). Porosity can be generated by the development of fractures, in which case it is called fracture porosity. Effective porosity is the interconnected pore volume in a rock that contributes to fluid flow in a reservoir. It excludes isolated pores. Total porosity is the total void space in the rock whether or not it contributes to fluid flow. Thus, effective porosity is typically less than total porosity. Shale gas reservoirs tend to have relatively high porosity, but the alignment of platy grains such as clays makes their permeability very low.
Tests in an oil or gas well to determine its flow capacity at specific conditions of reservoir and flowing pressures. The absolute open flow potential (AOFP) can be obtained from these tests, and then the inflow performance relationship (IPR) can be generated.
The study of the physical characteristics and behavior of rock. Rock mechanics can include analysis of and relationships between properties such as velocity, density, porosity, permeability, shear strength, and bending and crushing behavior, as well as the greater geological context of forces that deform strata and produce geological structures.
A fine-grained, fissile, detrital sedimentary rock formed by consolidation of clay- and silt-sized particles into thin, relatively impermeable layers. It is the most abundant sedimentary rock. Shale can include relatively large amounts of organic material compared with other rock types and thus has potential to become a rich hydrocarbon source rock, even though a typical shale contains just 1% organic matter. Its typical fine grain size and lack of permeability, a consequence of the alignment of its platy or flaky grains, allow shale to form a good cap rock for hydrocarbon traps. Gas shows from shales during drilling have led some shales to be targeted as potential gas reservoirs. Various clay types and volumes influence the quality of the reservoir from a petrophysical and geomechanical perspective. The quality of shale reservoirs depends on their thickness and extent, organic content, thermal maturity, depth and pressure, fluid saturations, and permeability, among other factors.
Shale oil, also known as kerogen oil or oil-shale oil, is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. These processes convert the organic matter within the rock (kerogen) into synthetic oil and gas. The resulting oil can be used immediately as a fuel or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. The refined products can be used for the same purposes as those derived from crude oil. The term "shale oil" is interchangeable, as it is used as well for crude oil produced from shales of other very low permeability formations. However, for avoiding the risk of confusion of shale oil produced from oil shale with crude oil in oil-bearing shales, the International Energy Agency recommends to use the term "light tight oil" and World Energy Resources 2013 report by the World Energy Council uses the term "tight oil" for the latter.
A rock rich in organic matter which, if heated sufficiently, will generate oil or gas. Typical source rocks, usually shales or limestones, contain about 1% organic matter and at least 0.5% total organic carbon (TOC), although a rich source rock might have as much as 10% organic matter. Rocks of marine origin tend to be oil-prone, whereas terrestrial source rocks (such as coal) tend to be gas-prone. Preservation of organic matter without degradation is critical to creating a good source rock, and necessary for a complete petroleum system. Under the right conditions, source rocks may also be reservoir rocks, as in the case of shale gas reservoirs.
A system that has reached equilibrium for the measurement or phenomenon concerned. In the case of permeability measurements on core samples, a steady state is reached when the flow rate, the upstream and the downstream pressures no longer change with time. At this point the permeability can be calculated from the flow rate and pressures and applying Darcy's equation. If gas is used, the inertial resistance and gas slippage (Klinkenberg effect) should be corrected for.
Crude oil containing low levels of sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide [H2S]. The facilities and equipment to handle sweet crude are significantly simpler than those required for other potentially corrosive types of crude oil.
The end of the well, measured by the length of pipe required to reach the bottom.
Alternate Form: TD
True vertical depth
The vertical distance from a point in the well (usually the current or final depth) to a point at the surface, usually the elevation of the rotary kelly bushing (RKB). This is one of two primary depth measurements used by the drillers, the other being measured depth. TVD is important in determining bottomhole pressures, which are caused in part by the hydrostatic head of fluid in the wellbore. For this calculation, measured depth is irrelevant and TVD must be used. For most other operations, the driller is interested in the length of the hole or how much pipe will fit into the hole. For those measurements, measured depth, not TVD, is used. While the drilling crew should be careful to designate which measurement they are referring to, if no designation is used, they are usually referring to measured depth. Note that measured depth, due to intentional or unintentional curves in the wellbore, is always longer than true vertical depth.
An umbrella term for oil and natural gas that is produced by means that do not meet the criteria for conventional production. What has qualified as unconventional at any particular time is a complex function of resource characteristics, the available exploration and production technologies, the economic environment, and the scale, frequency and duration of production from the resource. Perceptions of these factors inevitably change over time and often differ among users of the term. At present, the term is used in reference to oil and gas resources whose porosity, permeability, fluid trapping mechanism, or other characteristics differ from conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Coalbed methane, gas hydrates, shale gas, fractured reservoirs, and tight gas sands are considered unconventional resources.
The repair or stimulation of an existing production well for the purpose of restoring, prolonging or enhancing the production of hydrocarbons.